Creating a new, clean and healthy internet name space.
Radix is part of the Directi Group. With over 6 million active domain names registered through its registrars, our group has significant experience (over 20 years) of managing domain names and is fully cognizant of the threat that stems from their abuse.
As one of the world's top ten registrars, we equally understand our ability to make a sizable contribution towards curbing internet abuse, and believe that mitigating this threat is one of our foremost responsibilities. By instituting policies, processes and services which go significantly above and beyond our obligation as a registrar, Directi has taken various initiatives to make the Internet a safer ground.
To drive this effort, Directi has a committed function working towards identifying abusive domain names and enforcing its policies. Our Abuse Desk functions 24/7 and takes prompt and effective action (both reactively and proactively) against domains reported or co-networked to be involved in any sort of online abuse.
On an average, we already address 15,000 reported or detected abuse cases per year. Abuse cases are addressed within pre-determined SLAs, and our team is committed to ensure that each incident is resolved satisfactorily.
The Directi abuse team has been heralded on many occasions by various security groups, law enforcement organizations and the general anti-abuse community for the manner in which abuse mitigation has been handled by us. Additionally, we have always become highly involved, and continue to remain committed to industry-wide efforts to address organized abuse such as botnets (see below) and large scale phishing attacks, and any other malfeasances.
All our Anti-Abuse Policies will put Registrants on notice of the ways in which we will identify and respond to abuse. They will also serve as a deterrent to those seeking to register and use domain names for abusive purposes.
Directi has vast experience in minimizing abusive registrations. Our Zero-Tolerance procedures and aggressive proactive takedown measures as a Domain Registrar have resulted in a white-hat reputation discouraging abusive registrations to begin with. The same approach will be followed for all our Registry operations.
Our proactive abuse procedures are geared towards building a reputation that discourages miscreants and malicious intent. Once it is known that abusive registrations and registrations in violation of our policies are suspended rapidly, both abusive registrations and abusive behavior will be discouraged.
Our abuse mitigation team has developed strong relationships with many security groups and individuals in the abuse mitigation community, with the aim of sharing intelligence and facilitating quick action on abusive domain names. These sources provide us actionable intelligence on domains bought through our registrar. We have also participated in coordinated takedowns with such agencies in the past and are committed to doing so in the future.
Here are some examples of cases where our efforts paid great results in abuse mitigation:
All our Anti-Abuse Policies will put Registrants on notice of the ways in which we will identify and respond to abuse. They will also serve as a deterrent to those seeking to register and use domain names for abusive purposes. Directi has vast experience in minimizing abusive registrations. Our Zero-Tolerance procedures and aggressive proactive takedown measures as a Domain Registrar have resulted in a white-hat reputation discouraging abusive registrations to begin with. The same approach will be followed for all our Registry operations.
The sunrise registration service for each of our TLDs will provide trademark holders with atleast one 30-day priority period in which to register their trademarks as domain names. Trademark holders satisfying the Sunrise eligibility requirements proposed in the 'gTLD Applicant Guidebook' will be eligible to apply for a domain name. Sunrise applicants should also need to be supported by an entry in the Trademark Clearing House (TMCH).Sunrise Dispute Resolution Process
We will also implement a Sunrise Dispute Resolution Policy (SDRP) to allow any party to raise a challenge. All registrants will be required to submit to proceedings under the SDRP and such claims may be raised at any time after registration of a domain name.
After a Sunrise name is awarded, it will also remain under a "Sunrise Lock" status for at least 60 days. During this period the domain will not resolve and cannot be modified, transferred, or deleted by the sponsoring registrar. A domain name will be unlocked at the end of that lock period only if it is not the subject of a Sunrise Challenge. Challenged domains will remain locked until the dispute resolution provider has issued a decision, which the registry operator will promptly execute.
A robust Trademark Claims service will be implemented across all our new gTLD extensions. We will check every domain registration to determine whether it matches an existing trademark at the Trademark Clearing House (TMCH). This service will also be enforced on every Registrar offering our extensions to registrants.Uniform Rapid Suspension (URS)
The URS (Uniform Rapid Suspension) procedure is a new RPM implementation which will be mandated in all our new gTLDs. Each provider will receive an email address where URS-related correspondence can be sent. And our compliance desk will monitor this email address for receipt of communications from URS providers.
All correspondence from a URS provider will be validated and we will lock the domain name in question by restricting all changes to the registration data, including transfer and deletion of the domain name. The domain name will continue to resolve while in this locked status. Upon receipt of notification from the URS provider of termination of a URS proceeding we will promptly unlock the domain name and return full control to the registrant.
The protection of trademark rights is one of our core goals. Our Right Protection Mechanisms, policies and procedures go significantly above and beyond the minimum mandated RPMs to prevent abusive registrations, rapidly take-down abuse when it occurs, and foster a clean namespace for every extension that we control. Our goal is to create a namespace that provides maximum protection to trademark holders.
Some of the mechanisms include:
Under this unique feature, during General Availability, we will continue to make available the EPP Trademark extension fields that are provided during sunrise. Registrants will be able to specify their IPR details against their domain names even after sunrise. This ability for a Registrant to voluntarily declare Trademark data even during general availability will reduce potential confusion amongst mark holders and the general public and reduce unnecessary UDRP procedures.2. Profiling and Blacklisting
This process, currently in practice for our registrar businesses within the Directi Group, is used for gathering intelligence on known offenders. We maintain abuse ratios for each of the 1,000,000 plus registrants and 65,000 plus resellers under Directi's registrar business.
Experience has enabled us to use these ratios accurately to uncover registrants who are known and repeated offenders. Expert offenders rarely reuse the same registrant profile and often maintain a myriad number of profiles to mask their true identity. Through pattern mapping we try and group registrant profiles that we believe belong to the same operator.
As a preventive safeguard against abusive domain registration, we follow a consistent review process where a sample of newly registered domain names are analyzed for potential abusive activity. Coupled with our profiling process, it enables us to take proactive measures against domain names that are registered solely to perpetrate malicious activities such as phishing, or otherwise infringe on the rights of others. This helps us curb abusive activity before it can affect too many Internet users. We will implement similar safeguards for our TLDs and encourage registrars to incorporate this practice as part of their abuse mitigation processes.
Registry functions for all RADIX TLDs are supported by CentralNic Ltd.(www.centralnic.com); For information on its DNSSEC Practices,
please see the CentralNic DPS.
This launch policy (“Launch Policy”) describes and explains the policies regarding priority registration for holders of registered trademarks and other obligations before Radix FZC or its subsidiaries (“Radix”) opens registrations for general availability to the public on a first-come-first-served basis in any top level domains operated by Radix (“TLDs”).Pre-Launch Phase
Prior to launch of any TLD, Radix will reserve and make unavailable those domain names specified by ICANN, or by Radix, including premium names inaccordance with its Reserved Names Policy. Some or all of these names may be made available at a later date.
Additionally, some domain names will be placed in specific price categories (“Pricing Tiers”) and may be made available during or after the Landrush Phase. Each Pricing Tier may carry a specific price for registration, transfer, redemption and renewal that may be updated from timeto time at Radix’s discretion subject to the terms established in the registry-registrar agreement signed between Radix and registrars. Registrars may request a list of these domain names and their applicable pricing details from their account managers.
Radix may also initiate a Pioneers’ Program / Founders’ Program / another pre-launch program in some or all TLDs.For the purpose of this document, a Pioneers Program or Founder’s Program refers to a program approved by ICANN where by Radix, at its own discretion, may self-allocate or allocate to certain third-parties a number of domain names for purposes such as encouraging adoption and use of a TLD. More details about such pre-launch programs will be made available on the specific TLD’s website, if applicable.
Radix may also establish additional periods during which it will accept domain name registrations following the Sunrise Phase but prior to General Availability (a “Limited Registration Period”) in some or all TLDs. The Sunrise Phase and a Limited Registration Period may overlap, subject to the terms and conditions of the Trademark Clearinghouse (“TMCH”) as currently available at http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/about/trademark-clearinghouse/rpm-requirements-30sep13-en.pdfSunrise Phase
The Sunrise Phase will last for sixty (60) days unless otherwise indicated on the specific TLD’s website. During the Sunrise Phase, holders of Eligible Trademarks will have the opportunity to apply for and register the domain names that correspond with those Eligible Trademarks during a limited period of time before registration is open to the public at large. For the purpose of this policy, an Eligible Trademark refers to a trademark that has been validated by the Trademark Clearing house (“TMCH”) and for which a Signed Mark Data (“SMD”) file has been generated. SMD refers to a file generated by the TMCH when intellectual property rights to a trademark have been verified and stored in the TMCH database. An application for a domain name during the Sunrise Phase must be accompanied by the SMD file. For the avoidance of doubt, Radix will accept applications for domain names that correspond with Eligible Trademarks, but will not accept applications for domain names that are not registered with the TMCH.
The minimum registration period for a domain name during the Sunrise Phase is one (1) year. At the end of the Sunrise Phase, if there is only one applicant for a domain name, the name will be allocated and registered to that applicant, after processing the relevant payment, in accordance with the details provided to the participating registrar at the time of application. However, if there are multiple applications for the same domain name, the applicants will be invited to participate in an auction for that particular domain name (“Contention String”). For more information, please see the section on Auctions below. All application fees associated with the Sunrise Phase will be non-refundable, regardless of whether or not the applicant wins an auction.Quiet Phase
Radix may choose to conduct a Quiet Phase lasting no longer than 15 days at the end of the Sunrise Phase and Landrush Phase. No new applications or registrations will be accepted during this Phase. Radix may conduct Auctions for domain names applied for during the Sunrise Phase and the Landrush Phase during this Quiet Phase.Landrush Phase
After the Sunrise Phase is closed and the subsequent Quiet Phase, Radix may open a Landrush Phase during which any interested person or entity will have the opportunity to submit an application for an available domain name in the TLD. The Landrush Phase, if conducted will last for thirty (30) days unless otherwise indicated on the specific TLD’s website. During this phase, Radix may release the domain names previously reserved during the Pre-Launch phase and placed in specific Pricing Tiers.
The minimum registration period for a domain name during the Landrush Period is one (1) year. All applications received during the Landrush Phase will be treated as arriving at the same time. At the end of the Landrush Phase, if there is only one applicant for a domain name, the name will be allocated and registered to that applicant, after processing the relevant payment, in accordance with the details provided to the participating registrar at the time of application. However, if there are multiple applications for the same domain name, the applicants will be invited to participatein an auction for that particular domain name. For more information, please see the section on Auctions below. Application fees associated with the Landrush Phase maybe refundable or non-refundable, dependent entirely on the concerned registrar’s policies and discretion.
If implemented, Radix will provide the Trademark Claims Service during the Landrush Phase.Auctions
Sunrise auctions for any Contention String will be conducted at the end of the Sunrise Phase ("Sunrise Auctions") and Landrush auctions will be conducted at the end of the Landrush Phase ("Landrush Auctions") by a third party auction provider (together, the "Auctions", each an "Auction") chosen by Radix.
The rules of the Auction are set by the auction provider and will be made available by the chosen auction provider prior to any Auction. The onus is on the applicants in the Auction (“Participants”) to understand and abide by these rules, which shall be binding on each Participant. Some auction houses may reserve the right to charge fees.
The winner of any Auction will be allocated the relevant domain name which will be registered as soon as reasonably possible after Auction. All application fees associated with the Sunrise Phase will be non-refundable, regardless of whether or not the applicant wins an auction. Application fees associated with the Landrush Phase may be refundable or non-refundable, dependent entirely on the concerned registrar’s policies and discretion.
The outcome of any Auction is final and Radix accepts no liability whatsoever for any error, omission, negligent act, interruptions, actual or alleged procedural unfairness, delays or any on-going responsibility to operate the auction or to provide the auction service in the specified time periods or any other matter arising from or relating to any Sunrise Auction or Landrush Auction.General Availability
After the Launch Phases described above, any interested party may register any available domain name on a first-come-first served basis.
Domain names placed into specific Pricing Tiers that are still available may remain in that Pricing Tier, for registration in General Availability. Radix also reserves to right to move available domain names across Pricing Tiers, at its own discretion, and all such movements resulting in price changes will be made in compliance with the notice periods established in the registry-registrar agreement signed between Radix and registrars.
This Sunrise Dispute Resolution Policy (the “SDRP”) is incorporated by reference into the Registration Agreement for domain names registered in all top-level domains (“TLDs”) for which Radix FZC or its wholly-owned subsidiaries (“Radix” or the “Registry”) enter into a Registry Agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (“ICANN”) (here in after referred to as the “Radix TLDs”). An SDRP Complaint may be filed against a domain name registered in a Radix TLD during its sunrise period, until 60 days after the applicable sunrise period ends. The Provider for SDRP disputes is the National Arbitration Forum (“NAF” or the “Forum”) (http://domains.adrforum.com).Purpose
Domain names in the Radix TLDs can be registered by third parties and by the Registry Operator or reserved from registration by the Registry Operator (“Registry-Reserved Names”). This SDRP describes the process and standards that will be applied to resolve challenges alleging that a domain name has been registered in violation of Radix’s SDRP criteria. This SDRP will not be applied to Registry-Reserved Names in Radix TLDs.Applicable Disputes
A registered domain name in any Radix TLD will be subject to an administrative proceeding upon submission of a complaint that the Sunrise Registration was improper under one or more of the following criteria.a. Improper Sunrise Registration-Trademarks
A complaint under this section shall be required to show by reasonable evidence that a registered domain name in the TLD does not comply with the provisions of the Registry’s Sunrise Program. The complaint must prove one or more of the following elements:
Panelists will review the Registry’s Sunrise Criteria, allocation requirements, or community-based eligibility requirements which are required to be submitted with the Complaint, as applicable, in making its decision.b. Defenses
Harmless error. A Respondent may produce evidence to show that, although the sunrise registration was granted based on submission of the wrong documents, or documents containing an error, the true and correct evidence existed at the time the sunrise registration was applied for and, thus, the registration would have been granted.Remedies
Unless otherwise specified in this Policy, the remedies available to a complainant for a proceeding under this SDRP shall be limited to:a. Improper Sunrise Registration
A Complaint under this SDRP shall be submitted to the Forum by submitting the complaint directly to the Forum. The Forum will administer the proceeding and select a qualified and eligible Panelist (“Panelist”). The Forum has established Rules for National Arbitration Forum’s Sunrise Dispute Resolution Policy (“Rules”), setting forth a fee schedule and other technical and process requirements for handling a dispute under this SDRP. The proceedings under this SDRP will be conducted according to this SDRP and the applicable Rules of the Forum (currently available at http://domains.adrforum.com/resource.aspx?id=1923) which are incorporated here by reference.b. Registry’s or Registrar’s Involvement
Neither the Registry nor registrar will participate in the administration or conduct of any proceeding before a Panelist. In any event, neither the Registry nor the registrar is or will be liable as a result of any decisions rendered by the Panelist. Any sunrise-registered domain names in the Radix TLDs involved in a SDRP proceeding will be locked against transfer to another domain name holder or another registrar during the course of a proceeding.The contact details of the holder of a registered domain name in the TLD, against which a complaint has been filed, will be as shown in the registrar’s publicly available Whois database record for the relevant registrant. The Registry and the applicable registrar will comply with any Panelist decision and make all appropriate changes to the status of the domain name registration(s) in their Whois databases.c. Parties
The registrant of a registered domain name in the TLD shall be promptly notified by the Forum of the commencement of a dispute under this SDRP, and may contest the allegations of the complaint or show other cause why the remedy requested in the complaint should not be granted in accordance with this SDRP. In all cases, the burden of proof shall be on the complainant, and default or other failure of the holder of the registered domain name shall not constitute an admission to any allegation of the complaint. The Forum shall promptly notify all named parties in the dispute, as well as the registrar and the Registry of any decision made by a Panelist.d. Decisions
If a Panelist’s decision requires a change to the status of a registered domain name, the Registry will wait ten (10) business days after communication of the decision before implementing that decision, unless the registrant submits to the Registry (with a copy to the Forum) during that ten (10) day period official documentation (such as a copy of a complaint, file-stamped by the clerk of the court) that the registrant has commenced a lawsuit to preserve its claimed rights in a court of competent jurisdiction over the parties and the registered domain name. If such documentation is received no further action shall be taken until the Registry receives (i) evidence satisfactory to the Registry of an agreed resolution between the parties; (ii) evidence satisfactory to Registry that registrant’s lawsuit has been dismissed or withdrawn; or (iii) a copy of an order from such court dismissing such lawsuit or otherwise directing disposition of the registered domain name.f. Representations and Warranties
Parties to a dispute under this SDRP shall warrant that all factual allegations made in the course thereof are true and correct to the best of their knowledge, shall remain subject to all representations and warranties made in the course of registration of a disputed domain name.Maintaining the Status Quo
During a proceeding under the SDRP, the registered domain name shall be locked against transfers between registrants and/or registrars and against deletion by registrants.Indemnification / Hold Harmless
The parties shall hold the registrar, the Registry, the Forum, and the Panelist harmless from any claim arising from operation of the SDRP. Neither party may name the registrar, the Registry, the Forum, or the Panelist as a party or otherwise include the registrar, the Registry, the Forum, or the Panelist in any judicial proceeding relating to the dispute or the administration of the SDRP policy. The parties shall indemnify, defend and hold harmless the registrar, the Registry, the Forum, the Panelist and their respective employees, contractors, agents and service providers from any claim arising from the conduct or result of a proceeding under this SDRP. Neither the registrar, the Registry, Forum, the Panelist and their respective employees, contractors, agents and service providers shall be liable to a party for any act or omission in connection with any administrative proceeding under this SDRP or the corresponding Rules. The complainant shall be directly and solely liable to the registrant in the event the complaint is granted in circumstances where the registrant is lawfully entitled to registration and use of the registered domain name(s) in the TLD.Relation to Other Dispute Resolution Policies
This SDRP is in addition to and complementary with the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (“UDRP”), the Uniform Rapid Suspension System (“URS”) and any charter, nexus, or eligibility dispute policies adopted by ICANN or the Registry.Effect of Other Proceedings
The administrative proceeding under the SDRP shall not prevent either party from submitting a dispute concerning the registered domain name(s) in the Radix TLD to concurrent administrative proceedings or to a court of competent jurisdiction for independent resolution during a pending SDRP administrative proceeding or after such proceeding is concluded. Upon notice of such other proceeding, the SDRP proceeding may be terminated (in the sole discretion of the Panelist) in deference to the outcome of such other proceeding.SDRP Modifications
Radix reserves the right to modify this SDRP at any time subject to the terms of its MoU with the Forum. Such revised SDRP shall be posted on the Forum Website at least thirty (30) calendar days before it becomes effective; unless this SDRP has already been invoked by the submission of a complaint, in which event the version of the SDRP in effect at the time it was invoked will apply until the dispute is concluded. In the event that registrant objects to a change in this SDRP, the sole remedy is to cancel the registration, provided that registrant will not be entitled to a refund of any fees paid in connection with such registration.
This policy describes Radix FZC’s and its subsidiaries’ (“Radix”) Reserved Names Policy as it applies to all new top-level domains operated by Radix subsidiaries (“TLDs”). This policy may be modified and updated from time to time based on evolving needs and requirements of Radix and The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (“ICANN”).Contractual Obligations
Under the terms of its Registry Agreement with ICANN, Radix is required to comply with restrictions on registration of the character strings set out in ICANN’s Registry Agreement, Specification 5 – Schedule of Reserved Names. These names will be reserved and not available for registration in all Radix TLDs. The relevant portions of Specification 5 are reprinted below in Appendix 1 of this policy document.Registry Reserved Names
Radix may at any time reserve domain names from registration, including, without limitation, those domain names that are reserved for operations and other purposes, and including without limitation certain premium names, which Radix may change from time to time (“Registry Reserved Names”).
These names will not be available at launch, but Radix reserves the right to make a part or all of the Registry Reserved names available at a later date via mechanisms to be determined by Radix.
Registrars may request the Registry Reserved Names list for each TLD from their account managers.Modification of Reserved Names
In accordance with ICANN’s Registry Agreement Clause 2.6, Radix may at any time establish or modify policies concerning Radix’s ability to reserve (i.e. withhold from registration or allocate to the Registry Operator) or block any character strings within any TLD at its discretion.
Except to the extent that ICANN otherwise expressly authorizes in writing, and subject to the terms and conditions of this Specification, Registry Operator shall reserve the following labels from initial (i.e., other than renewal) registration within the TLD. If using self-allocation, the Registry Operator must show the registration in the RDDS. In the case of IDN names (as indicated below), IDN variants will be identified according to the registry operator IDN registration policy, where applicable.1. Example.
The ASCII label “EXAMPLE” shall be withheld from registration orallocated to Registry Operator at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD at which Registry Operator offers registrations (such second level and all other levels are collectively referred to herein as, “All Levels”). Such label may not be activated in the DNS, and may not be released for registration to any person or entity other than Registry Operator. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, such withheld or allocated label shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such name without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.2. Two-character labels.
All two-character ASCII labels shall be withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator at the second level within the TLD. Such labels may not be activated in the DNS, and may not be released for registration to any person or entity other than Registry Operator, provided that such two-character label strings may be released to the extent that Registry Operator reaches agreement with the related government and country-code manager of the string as specified in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standard. The Registry Operator may also propose the release of these reservations based on its implementation of measures to avoid confusion with the corresponding country codes, subject to approval by ICANN. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, all such labels that remain withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.3. Reservations for Registry Operations.
3.1. The following ASCII labels must be withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator at All Levels for use in connection with the operation of the registry for the TLD: WWW, RDDS and WHOIS. The following ASCII label must be allocated to Registry Operator at All Levels for use in connection with the operation of the registry for the TLD: NIC. Registry Operator may activate WWW, RDDS and WHOIS in the DNS, but must activate NIC in the DNS, as necessary for the operation of the TLD. None of WWW, RDDS, WHOIS or NIC may be released or registered to any person (other than Registry Operator) or third party. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD all such withheld or allocated names shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.
3.2. Registry Operator may activate in the DNS at All Levels up to one hundred (100) names (plus their IDN variants, where applicable) necessary for the operation or the promotion of the TLD. Registry Operator must act as the Registered Name Holder of such names as that term is defined in the then-current ICANN Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA). These activations will be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement. Registry Operator must either (i) register such names through an ICANN-accredited registrar; or (ii) self-allocate such names and with respect to those names submit to and be responsible to ICANN for compliance with ICANN Consensus Policies and the obligations set forth in Subsections 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206 of the then-current RAA (or any other replacement clause setting out the terms of the registration agreement between a registrar and a registered name holder). At Registry Operator’s discretion and in compliance with all other terms of this Agreement, such names may be released for registration to another person or entity.
3.3. Registry Operator may withhold from registration or allocate to Registry Operator names (including their IDN variants, where applicable) at All Levels in accordance with Section 2.6 of the Agreement. Such names may not be activated in the DNS, but may be released for registration to another person or entity at Registry Operator’s discretion. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, all such names that remain withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Upon ICANN’s request, Registry Operator shall provide a listing of all names withheld or allocated to Registry Operator pursuant to Section 2.6 of the Agreement. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.4. Country and Territory Names.
The country and territory names (including theirIDN variants, where applicable) contained in the following internationally recognized lists shall be withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator at All Levels:
4.1. the short form (in English) of all country and territory names contained on the ISO 3166-1 list, as updated from time to time, including the European Union, which is exceptionally reserved on the ISO 3166-1 list, and its scope extended in August 1999 to any application needing to represent the name European Union <https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#search>;
4.2. the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Technical Reference Manual for the Standardization of Geographical Names, Part III Names of Countries of the World; and
4.3. the list of United Nations member states in 6 official United Nations languages prepared by the Working Group on Country Names of the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names;
provided, that the reservation of specific country and territory names (including their IDN variants according to the registry operator IDN registration policy, where applicable) may be released to the extent that Registry Operator reaches agreement with the applicable government(s). Registry Operator must not activate such names in the DNS; provided, that Registry Operator may propose the release of these reservations, subject to review by ICANN’s Governmental Advisory Committee and approval by ICANN. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, all such names that remain withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.5. International Olympic Committee; International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
As instructed from time to time by ICANN, the names (including theirIDN variants, where applicable) relating to the International Olympic Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement listed at http://www.icann.org/en/resources/registries/reserved shall be withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator at the second level within the TLD. Additional International Olympic Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement names (including their IDN variants) may be added to the list upon ten (10) calendar days notice from ICANN to Registry Operator. Such names may not be activated in the DNS, and may not be released for registration to any person or entity other than Registry Operator. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, all such names withheld from registration or allocated to Registry Operator shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.6. Intergovernmental Organizations.
As instructed from time to time by ICANN,Registry Operator will implement the protections mechanism determined by the ICANN Board of Directors relating to the protection of identifiers for Intergovernmental Organizations. A list of reserved names for this Section 6 is available at http://www.icann.org/en/resources/registries/reserved. Additional names (including their IDN variants) may be added to the list upon ten (10) calendar days notice from ICANN to Registry Operator. Any such protected identifiers for Intergovernmental Organizations may not be activated in the DNS, and may not be released for registration to any person or entity other than Registry Operator. Upon conclusion of Registry Operator’s designation as operator of the registry for the TLD, all such protected identifiers shall be transferred as specified by ICANN. Registry Operator may self-allocate and renew such names without use of an ICANN accredited registrar, which will not be considered Transactions for purposes of Section 6.1 of the Agreement.
Radix FZC (“Registry Operator”) is required to collect and provide domain name registration information ("Whois Data") for a variety of purposes. Registry Operator provides access to Whois Data through a standard text-based network protocol on Port 43. Whois Data can also be accessed on the Registry Operator’s website using a standard web interface at http://whois.radix.website Both interfaces are publicly available at no cost to the user and are reachable worldwide. This service is available to any Internet user and its use does not require prior authorization or permission.`
Access to Whois Data in the Registry Operator's database is provided to assist in determining the contents of a domain name's registration record. Whois Data consists not only of the domain name but also the relevant contact information associated with the domain name as provided by the registrant. It also identifies nameserver delegation and the domain name's registrar of record.
The data in this record is provided for informational purposes only; Registry Operator does not guarantee Whois Data accuracy. This service is intended only for query-based access. By submitting a Whois query to Registry Operator, you agree to abide by this Whois Access Policy (this "Policy"). The Registry Operator reserves the right to modify this Policy at any time.Security and Stability Considerations
Abuse of the Registry Operator’s Whois system through data mining will be mitigated by detecting and limiting bulk query access from single sources. Such queries by non-authorized parties will be limited and unauthorized queries may result in responses that do not include data sets representing significant portions of the registration database.
In addition, the Registry Operator’s Whois web interface may add a simple challenge-response CAPTCHA that requires a user to type in the characters displayed in a certain image.
By accessing Whois Data from the Registry Operator, you agree that you will use the Whois Data only for lawful purposes and that under no circumstances will you use the Whois Data to:
Users who collect Whois Data by any of the above purposes are prohibited from publishing such Whois Data.
When using the Registry Operator’s Whois service, consider the following:
1. Radix FZC and its subsidiaries (“Radix”) are committed to the stable and secure operation of its top-level domains (“TLDs”). Abusive use of domain names creates security and stability issues for registries, registrars and registrants – as well as for users of the Internet in general. Accordingly, Radix requires that every domain name in its TLDs (“Registered Name”) and Registered Name Holder adhere to this Acceptable Use and Anti-Abuse Policy (“AUP”). For the purpose of this AUP, a “Registered Name Holder” refers to the person or company owning or otherwise controlling a Registered Name by virtue of a registration agreement with a registrar.
2. Every Registered Name Holder is required to enter into and comply with a registration agreement with an ICANN-Accredited registrar or its authorized representative.
3. Every Registered Name Holder is required to comply with all ICANN consensus policies applicable to Registered Name Holders, including (a) the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (http://www.icann.org/en/help/dndr/udrp), and (b) the Uniform Rapid Suspension Policy (http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/applicants/urs), and (c) such other ICANN consensus policies as ICANN publishes on its website and makes applicable to Radix, Registrars or Registered Name Holders, and as may be amended by ICANN from time to time.
4. Every Registered Name Holder acknowledges and agrees that Registered Name Holders are solely responsible for the content they publish on websites on the Registered Name. Radix cannot and does not design, review or screen content on any web site and does not assume any obligation to monitor such content. However, each Registered Name Holder agrees that Radix may review web sites or other content in responding to a third party complaint or for any other reason.
5. By applying for or obtaining a Registered Name, every Registered Name Holder acknowledges accepts, and agrees to comply with the terms under which such application and registration was made, including the terms and conditions of all other applicable policies available on the Radix website and use restrictions set forth herein.
6. Registered Name Holders who have obtained or registered any two character second level domain name/s under any of the TLDs will take steps to ensure against misrepresenting or falsely implying that the Registered Name Holder or its business is affiliated with a government or country-code manager if such affiliation, sponsorship or endorsement does not exist.
7. Radix reserves the right to deny, suspend, cancel, redirect or transfer any registration or transaction, or place any Registered Name(s) on registry lock, hold or similar status that it deems necessary, in its sole discretion, for any of the following reasons:
8. Radix reserves the right to disclose individual non-public personal data of Registered Name Holders associated with Registered Names which are found to be in violation of this AUP and/or if required or requested by law enforcement agencies, security agencies, registries, registrars and other service providers irrespective of the number and frequency of AUP violations.Prohibited Uses
The following will be deemed as violations of the AUP:1. Intellectual property, Trademark, Copyright, and Patent violations, including piracy
Common types of intellectual property rights include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets in recognized jurisdictions. Any act resulting in theft, misuse, misrepresentation or any other harmful act by any Registered Name Holder will be categorized as an Intellectual Property violation.2. Spamming
Spamming refers to the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages. The term applies to e-mail spam and similar abuses such as instant messaging spam, mobile messaging spam, and the spamming of Web sites and Internet forums. Unsolicited emails advertising legitimate and illegitimate products, services, and/or charitable requests and requests for assistance are also considered as spam.3. Phishing (and various forms of identity theft)
Fraudulent web services and applications meant to represent⁄confuse or mislead internet users into believing they represent services or products for nefarious purposes, such as illegally gaining login credentials to actual legitimate services.4. Pharming and DNS hijacking
This includes redirection of DNS traffic from legitimate and intended destinations, by compromising the integrity of the relevant DNS systems. This leads unsuspecting Internet users to fraudulent web services and applications for nefarious purposes, such as illegally gaining login credentials to actual legitimate services.5. Distribution of viruses or malware
Most typically the result of a security compromised web service where the perpetrator has installed a virus or “malevolent” piece of software meant to infect computers attempting to use the web service in turn. Infected computers are then security compromised for various nefarious purposes such as gaining stored security credentials or personal identity information such as credit card data. Additionally compromised computers can sometimes be remotely controlled to inflict harm on other internet services.6. Child pornography
Child pornography refers to images or films (also known as child abuse images) and, in some cases, writings depicting sexually explicit activities involving a minor.7. Using Fast Flux techniques
A methodology for hiding multiple source computers delivering malware, phishing or other harmful services behind a single domain hostname, by rapidly rotating associated IP addresses of the sources computers through related rapid DNS changes. This is typically done at DNS zones delegated below the level of a TLD DNS zone.8. Running Botnet command and control operations
A Botnet is a significant coordinated net of compromised (sometimes tens of thousands) computers running software services to enact various forms of harm - ranging from unsanctioned spam to placing undue transaction traffic on valid computer services such as DNS or web services. Command and control refers to a smaller number of computers that issue⁄distribute subsequent commands to the Botnet. Compromised Botnet computers will periodically check in with a command and control computer that hides behind a list of date triggered, rotating domain registrations, which are pre-loaded in the compromised computer during its last check-in.9. Hacking
Hacking constitutes illegally accessing computers, accounts, or networks belonging to another party, or attempting to penetrate security measures of other individuals. Also includes any activity that might be used as a precursor to an attempted system penetration.10. Financial and other confidence scams
Financial scams, including but not limited to the cases defined below, are operated by fraudsters to lure investors into fraudulent money making schemes. Prominent examples that will be treated as abusive are
Distribution and promotion of drugs, locally within a nation or overseas, without prescription and appropriate licenses as required in the country of distribution are termed illegal.12. Other violations
Other violations that will be expressly prohibited under the TLDs include
Radix provides an abuse point of contact through an e-mail address posted on the Radix website found at https://radix.website/report-abuse
Radix also provides a web form for complaints on the Radix website.Managing violations and abuse
Radix will address abusive behavior in its TLDs consistent with this AUP.
Radix, in its sole discretion, may modify this AUP. Any such revised policy will be posted on the Radix website at least thirty (30) calendar days before it becomes effective. Continued use of the Registered Names after the date of the modified AUP taking effect constitutes acceptance of the modification.